17 minute read


  • Handout: The history and future of digital wallets 2023-06-29 Steve Lockstep PDF

    We can trace the history of digital wallets with a Capability-Maturity Model (CMM) from paper and magnetic stripes to chip and mobiles. The fundamentally important trend over the decades has been to use smart technology to prove the properties of the data carried in the wallet. Today’s smart phone wallets prove the origin of each credential, possession by its rightful owner, the manufacturer and history of the wallet, and other metadata.

  • GlobaliD 101: ID wallets 2022-08-02 GlobalID

    What if instead, you could securely and selectively share your ID with an expiring link? Your name and photo will be visible but other private details will be blurred out. Your Airbnb now believes you are who you say you are because they also trust the issuer of your digital credential. Likewise, you don’t have to worry that a copy of your full license is on a stranger’s phone forever. Everyone rests easy, and you enjoy the heck out of your vacation.

  • A Business Trip with FlexID SSID 2022-03-19 Kudzaishe George Zharare

    In the offline world, we typically store credentials in a physical wallet — it keeps them all in one place, protects them by keeping them close to our body, and makes them easy to carry around and access when we need them. The job of a digital wallet is no different:

    1. Store your credentials, keys/keycards, bills/receipts, etc
    2. Protect them from theft or prying eyes.
    3. Keep them handy — easily available and portable across all your devices.
  • Self-Sovereign Identity: The Foundation of the Digital Wallet 2022-03-03 Nevis

    Turning identifying features into verified credentials

    How exactly does this work? Let’s look at the three roles of user, issuer and verifier. Firstly, users can have any number of attributes – such as their credit rating, national identity document or driving licence – certified by the entity responsible for each attribute.

  • Digital Identity Wallet: A place for your self-sovereign identity 2021-06-20 SSI Ambassador

    This article explains what a wallet is, how it works and how you can use it for managing your digital identity. While there are also wallets for institutions, this article only focuses on wallets for end users. The article also takes into consideration the revised eIDAS regulation including the ‘European Digital Identity Wallet’.

  • 5 Reasons to Use an Identity Wallet 2021-06-14 Affinidi

    Undoubtedly, identity wallets are an integral part of the future as it comes with a ton of benefits geared for the next-gen online security.

  • The benefits of Self-Sovereign Identity wallets: Collaborating on Self-Sovereign Identity wallets 2021-03-18 Rabobank (Part 2

    SSI and identity wallets will make it easier for citizens, organizations and governments to manage (digital) identities. It will make registrations and transactions across the internet private and secure. It will also make organizations more efficient and effective. As administration is reduced, costs will decrease. As their user interface becomes easier to use, their customers will perform more registrations with less errors - what in some cases will lead to extra revenue, but in all cases will lead to more satisfied customers

  • Digital Wallets and Digital Agents: Putting the Individual in Control 2021-03-05 Evernym

    Fittingly, some define wrath as “when anger is directed against an innocent person, and when it is unduly strong or long-lasting.” That feels right if you consider the real-life impacts of disabling someone’s digital identity without notice.

  • [Report] Making Sense of Digital Wallets (DIACC) 2020-12-15 DIACC

    This report proposes what a trusted digital wallet should aim to do.

  • Operationalizing Digital Relationships 2020-11 Phil Windley

    An SSI wallet provides a place for people to stand in the digital realm. Using the wallet, people can operationalize their digital relationships as peers with others online.


  • An Identity Wallet Bill of Rights - Starting With the Mobile Driver License 2022-09-12 Spruce Systems

    The EFF further has recommended W3C Verifiable Credentials due to their history of being developed in the public, and being an open standard. We agree with this. Vendors such as Microsoft, Ping Identity, Workday, and Spruce have already adopted these in pilots and production use cases. Furthermore, Underwriter Labs, an author of ISO 18013-5, has described how to interoperate Verifiable Credentials with the ISO described data model and protocols. We look forward to continuing our collaborations here such as demonstrating interoperability with TBD:

  • Digital Wallets and Migration Policy: A Critical Intersection 2022-06-15 Bosh Stiftung (Download

    In cross-border and migration contexts, digital wallets promise to have wide ranging implications for global governance, especially in identity management and finance. In this brief Margie Cheesman outlines use cases as well as concerns and risks when it comes to their adoption in the migration sector.

  • Validated ID’s journey to becoming EBSI compliant 2022-05-10 Validated ID

    [Wallet Conformance Tests] are designed to demonstrate that the wallet provider can onboard users safely, receive verifiable credentials from a trusted issuer, and present verifiable credentials to a verifier. All of these, using of course EBSI infrastructure.

  • Trust In Your Wallet 2022-04-27 Findy Agency

    Finnish Trust Network consists of “strong electronic identification” providers. The concept means proving one’s identity in electronic services that meets specific requirements laid down by Finnish law. The identity providers are required to implement multi-factor authentication to authenticate the users.

  • Identity Wallets & eIDAS 2.0 2022-03-24 State of Identity

    What role will public vs. private institutions play in the rollout of eIDAS 2.0 wallets? On this week’s State of Identity podcast, host Cameron D’Ambrosi is joined by Marcel Wendt, CTO & Founder of Digidentity. The duo discusses the looming impact of eIDAS 2.0 on digital identity globally, how to keep data secure when verifying the identity of individuals and businesses online, and the European Union’s clear vision for where digital identity is headed].


  • Wallet Security [email protected] 2023-06-13 DIF

    The WG will design and define secure wallet architecture, establish common terminology, produce guidelines, classify and specify security capabilities and best practices, and more.

  • OpenWallet Foundation 2022-09 Nat Sakimura

    The formation of the OpenWallet Foundation was announced at the Open Source Summit held in Dublin on the evening of the 14th. The OpenWallet Foundation is an open source wallet based on standard protocols



User Experience

  • Custodial vs Non-custodial Wallets 2022-01-21 Affinidi

    The biggest disadvantage of non-custodial wallets is their inaccessibility when you lose or forget the password. Since you are the sole custodian, there is a huge responsibility on you to always remember the password of your wallet.

  • Determinants of Behavioral Intention to Use a Self-Sovereign Identity Digital Wallet: Extending the UTAUT with Trustworthiness 2021-09-27 Kerri Lemoie

    The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology was extended to examine the potential influence of the self sovereign identity principles and trustworthyness, along with other factors such as percieved usefulness and perceived ease of use, on the adoption of this new approach to online identity

  • Dissertation Study on Adoption of SSI Digital Wallet 2021-05-06 Kerri Lemoie [Slides]

    Perceived benefit + Perceived ease of use => Behavioral intention
    Her hypotheses: (slide 13)

    • H1: Perceived usefulness will have a positive effect on behavioral intention to use a self-sovereign identity digital wallet.
    • H2: Perceived ease of use will have a positive effect on behavioral intention to use a self-sovereign identity digital wallet.
    • H3: Trustworthiness will have a positive effect on behavioral intention to use a self-sovereign identity digital wallet.
    • H3a: Trustworthiness will have a positive effect on perceived usefulness.
      Methodology: anonymous online survey using design fiction (think “Star Trek”)
  • Digital Identity Wallet UI Competition 2020-12-14 Federal Blockchain News

    Kathleen Kenyon & Anil John believe that blockchain-based identity wallets are designed for engineers, not users, and created the Digital Identity Wallet UI Design Competition to address that challenge. Hear from the finalists’: Jeff Stephens of Dignari, Josh Welty of Trinsic, along with Ken Ebert and Scott Harris of Indicio.


Wallet Overview TNO SSI-Lab 2023 Related

Wallet Open Source Credential Format Encoding Scheme Signature Algorithm Revocation Algorithm Peer-to-Peer Protocol Blockchain Type Blockchain Purpose Credential Exchange Protocol Connection Type
AceID Wallet* - AceBlock ? - - - - - AceBlock blockchain framework - - -
Apple Wallet - - - - - -   - - -
Atala PRISM - IOHK No JWT-VC, soon:AnonCreds JSON, JSON-LD ECDSA, soon: CL Revocation not supported, soon: Revocation List 2021 DIDComm Cardano Anchoring public DIDs for issuers and/or verifiers (ie: enabling trust registry) Issue Credential Protocol, Present Proof Protocol, Presentation Exchange Connection-based communication
Blockcerts Wallet - Hyland Credentials Yes - - - - - Bitcoin and Ethereum, with Merkle proof linking credential to blockchain transaction - - -
Blockpass No - - - - - Ethereum or Blockpass - - -
Secure Identity - Bloom No - - - - - ? - - -
CertiShare Wallet - The Ego Company No AnonCred, JSON-LD JSON BBS+ Indy revocation DIDComm, DID Exchange Protocol, openID Hyperledger Indy Schema, CredentialDefinitions, DID, Revocation OIDC4CI, Issue Credential Protocol, Present Proof Protocol, Presentation Exchange Direct communication, Connection-based communication
Connect.Me - Evernym Yes - - - - - Hyperledger Indy and Hyperledger Ursa - - -
Data Wallet - iGrant.io No AnonCreds, VC(?) JSON CL, ES256 Indy revocation, EBSI revocation OIDC, SIOP, DIDComm, DID Exchange Protocol, Connection protocols in AIP 1.0 Hyperledger Indy, Ethereum, EBSI blockchain For publishing schema IDs, credential def IDs and public DID OIDC4CI, OIDC4VP, Issue Credential Protocol, Present Proof Protocol, Presentation Exchange, DEXA Direct communication, Connection-based communication
Datakeeper - Rabobank Nederland No LDP-VC JSON-LD ECDSA Validity credential, Revocation not supported Datakeeper protocol N/A N/A Datakeeper protocol (Verifiable Presentation) Direct communication
DID:Wallet - ArcBlock No - - - - - ArcBlock’s own blockchain and comprehensive support for the Ethereum ecosystem. - - -
esatus Wallet A new version, SOWL wallet, coming soon, with an open source SDK. AnonCred JSON CL Indy revocation DIDComm N/A N/A Issue Credential Protocol, Present Proof Protocol, Presentation Exchange Connection-based communication
Gataca No LDP-VC, JTW-VC JSON-LD EdDSA, RSA, secp256k, P-256, CadEs Status List 2017, Status List 2021 OIDC, SIOP We are agnostic to the infra, so the platform right now supports Ethereum, Fabric and EBSI To anchor DIDs (legal entities), and to anchor the trust framework OIDC4CI, OIDC4VP, Presentation Exchange Direct communication, Connection-based communication
Gimly ID - - - - - -   - - -
helix id - Blockchain Helix AG partly open sourced JWT, JWT-VC compact and JSON serialization, JSON, JSON-LD BBS+, ECDSA DID Revocation OIDC, DIDComm, DID Exchange Protocol public permissioned Ethereum, IPFS No personal data Issue Credential Protocol, Present Proof Protocol, Presentation Exchange Direct communication, Connection-based communication
IDEMA - - - - - -   - - -
idento.one - - - - - -   - - -
Identry No AnonCred JSON CL Indy revocation DIDComm HyperLedger Indy Authorization, Credentials Schemas, Revocation registry Present Proof Protocol Direct communication, Connection-based communication
Jolocom SmartWallet Yes - - - - - Ethereum - - -
KayTrust Wallet No - - - - - Blockchain network based on Ethereum - - -
Lissi Wallet No AnonCred JSON CL Indy revocation DIDComm Hyperledger Indy Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure Issue Credential Protocol, Present Proof Protocol, soon: OpenID4VCI and OpenID4VP Direct communication, Connection-based communication
MATTR Wallet No LDP-VC JSON-LD BBS+, EdDSA RevocationList2020 OIDC, DIDComm ION - if ION DID menthod used Storing public keys OIDC4CI Direct communication, Connection-based communication
Microsoft Entra No - - - - -   - - -
MYKEEPiN - Metadium No JWT, JWT-VC compact and JSON serialization, JSON, JSON-LD ECDSA Non-revocation token N/A Metadium Scale up for DID N/A Direct communication
Paradym Wallet - Animo Yes JWT-VC compact and JSON serialization, JSON EdDSA, ES256 No OID4VC N/A N/A OIDC4CI, OIDC4VP, Presentation Exchange Direct communication
SelfKey Wallet Yes - - - - - Ethereum - - -
Sphereon Wallet Yes JWT, JWT-VC, LDP-VC compact and JSON serialization, JSON, JSON-LD, JSON-LD BBS+, ECDSA, EdDSA, RSA Status List 2021, Validity credential OIDC, SIOP, DIDComm N/A N/A OIDC4CI, OIDC4VP, Presentation Exchange Direct communication, Connection-based communication
Spherity Wallet No AnonCred, JSON-LD - CL, BBS+, EdDSA Indy Revocation, Revocation 5539, Status List 2021 OIDC, SIOP, DIDComm, DID Exchange Protocol Ethereum Anchor DID & DID Documents, Trust Registry, Revocation Registry OIDC4CI, OIDC4VP, Issue Credential Protocol, Present Proof Protocol, Presentation Exchange Direct communication, Connection-based communication
Talao Yes JWT-VC, JSON-LD JSON, JSON-LD ECDSA Status List 2021 OIDC, SIOP, DID Exchange Protocol Ethereum, ION, EBSI, PolygonID identity, crypto OIDC4CI, OIDC4VP, Present Proof Protocol, Presentation Exchange Direct communication, Connection-based communication
uPort No - - - - - Ethereum - - -
VIDwallet - Validated ID No JWT-VC, JSON-LD, JWT JSON, JSON-LD ECDSA, EdDSA Status List 2021 OIDC, SIOP EBSI, Alastria, Ethereum Trust Anchor, Trust registry, root of trust OIDC4CI, OIDC4VP both
walt.id Yes JWT, LDP-VC compact and JSON serialization ECDSA, EdDSA, RSA Revocation not supported OIDC, SIOP ebsi, iota, cheqd, velocity EBSI - cross-border digital public services. IOTA - the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem. Velocity - Verified career credentials / trusted talent marketplace. Chqed - credential exchange between individuals and orgs. OIDC4CI, OIDC4VP, Presentation Exchange Direct communication, Connection-based communication
Workday Wallet - - - - - -   - - -
Yivi - Privacy by Design Foundation Yes Idemix ABC JSON CL, Schnorr Own implementation on top of Idemix IRMA protocol N/A N/A IRMA protocol Direct communication, Interpreted as direct wallet to IDP and wallet to RP connections. No communication through centralized components in our infrastructure. IRMA is fully decentralized.
ZADA Yes AnonCred, RSA JSON CL, RSA Indy revocation DIDComm Sovrin Public DIDs and associated DID documents with verification keys and endpoints, schemas and credential definitions, revocation registries, agent authorisation policies Issue Credential Protocol, Present Proof Protocol, Presentation Exchange -


  • Selv identity wallet 2023-06-30 IOTA

    You can use the included CLI to generate a credential. Supply the name of schema as defined in “Add Credential Schemas” and a path to your input data.

  • Global ID: Introducing our new ID Wallet 2022-09-14 FUTURE PROOF

    Our biggest product release in some time, our new ID Wallet is a core pillar of our mission to enable anyone to create and own their digital identity. We spoke with GlobaliD’s Trey Steinhoff to discuss the launch.

  • The Launchpad: Introducing the new ID Wallet 2022-09-13 Global ID

    As the user-facing part of the Trust Triangle, your ID Wallet should be beautiful, secure, and convenient.

  • OKTA Identity Cloud Integration with SSI agent 2021-11-23 Sethi Saab

    You will be able to learn how we can integrate existing centralized IDM solutions like Oracle Identity Cloud Service, OKTA identity Management, Sailpoint or Saviynt with SSI solutions like Hyperledger Aries, Spherity, or Trinsic to issue Verifiable credentials at the enterprise level as per

  • Datarella Launches SSI Wallet For Innovative Identity Management 2021-06-22 Datarella

    It can be integrated into new or existing ecosystems and provide fundamental decentralized identity infrastructure for users to authenticate, issue and receive Verifiable Credentials or transfer data. This allows for many innovative use cases like credential-based access management, automatic credential verification or trusted data transfer.

  • Self-Sovereign Identity Mobile Wallet 101: Key Features 2021-04-22 Northern Block

    In this video we showcase the features that a NB Orbit Mobile Wallet user can use:

    • Form P2P connections through DIDComm
    • Receive credential proof requests
    • Manage Verifiable Credentials
    • Scan QR codes to initiate proof requests
    • Manage profile
  • An Introduction to the Trinsic Wallet 2021-03-02

    When an organization requests information from an end user, the end user can decide whether to accept or reject the request. If the request is accepted, the wallet will find the relevant data from all of their credentials that is needed to fulfill the request.